As the first region in Ethiopia Tigray implemented a broad-scale land registration and certification process in 1998 that was scaled up at a remarkable speed although it was not fully completed due to the war with Eritra. We have done many studies that document positive effects of this land reform. In 2006/2007 the Regional Land Law was again revised and new ambitious targets were set. The new implied establishment of Land Administration Committees (LACs) at tabia (kebelle) and kushet (village) levels. These committees should have 7 members and contain 2 female and 2 landless youth representatives. Furthermore, the new law required the establishment of new Tabia Land Courts with 3 judges of which one should be female. The LACs were responsible for local implementation of the new law. Some of the new elements of the law were:

a) Land should be taken from those who had been away from the community for more than 2 years and redistributed to other households, primarily to young landless households,

b) Minimum farm size should be 0.25 ha

c) All land rental contracts should be accepted and registered at the Tabia Land Administration Committee

d) Households should not rent out more than 50% of their land

e) Households should be encouraged to consolidate their holdings and would get new certificates after doing this.

f) Households are required to manage their land in a sustainable way. Failure to do so will lead to warnings and possibly fines and eventually the land will be taken if the requirement is not met.

We will with our survey this time be able to assess the effects of these law reforms, the extent to which they have been implemented, how well the local land administrations and land courts are able to deal with the issues, and how it effects our household sample.

We were informed in the Regional Environmental Protection and Land Administration and Use Authority (EPLAUA) that they have gone far in implementing the new law but there are also some elements that have not been implemented. In relation to point a) above: 32 000 households had their land taken in 2007/08, 30 000 households had their land taken in 2008/09, and so far in 2009/10 (EC2002) 16 275 households (6 110 ha land) have had their land taken for redistribution.

Registration of land rental contract has also been implemented but local bylaws are also coming into play in how this is done and punishment for not reporting is not generally introduced. Also for SLM, a stepwise approach is taken involving the Natural Resource Department and there are so very few cases of land takings.